What is the Microbiome?

The human microbiome is a population of more than 100 trillion microorganisms that live in our gut, mouth, skin and elsewhere in our bodies.  The microbiome is becoming increasingly important across the life sciences industry. Understanding this ‘organ’ has the potential to change how we treat a range of diseases and illnesses, in particular gastrointestinal diseases and related cancers.

The intestinal microbiota is an extremely complex community, the richness and diversity of which seems to be under-represented in feacal samples.

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To place an order or for further information please email sales@originsciences.com or call +44 (0)1223 750490

Posters & Papers

Researching the gut microbiome
with The OriCol™ Microbiome Sampling Kit

OriCol™ is a simple, convenient and effective tool for sampling the rectal mucosa without the need for prior fasting or bowel preparation. Sampling can be performed by a trained healthcare professional in less than 5 minutes. 

Samples obtained using the OriCol™ device contain the same spectrum of bacteria as stool samples. There are differences in the abundance of certain groups, with mucosal-associated organisms such as Proteobacteria relatively enriched in the OriCol™ samples. 

 

 


Why is the mucosal microbiota important?

“We observed that both the ileal and the rectal biopsy have similar discriminatory power for classifying disease, regardless of the disease location. This creates the opportunity to use a minimally invasive sampling approach that avoids bowel preparation prior to the colonoscopy, and to perform dense sampling of the mucosal-associated microbiome to monitor the response to treatment and potentially predict changes in disease flares.”
Gevers D et al_The Treatment-Naive Microbiome in New-Onset Crohn’s Disease_Cell Host Microbiome_Mar 2014

“The intestinal luminal microbiota (represented by fecal samples) and MAM (represented by the colonic biopsy samples) are distinct microbial ecosystems that differ significantly from each other in diversity and microbial composition. These two microbial ecosystems should be investigated independently to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in health and disease conditions.”
Ringel Y et al_High throughput sequencing reveals distinct microbial populations within the mucosal and luminal niches in healthy individuals_Gut Microbes_May 2015

“These results confirm that the dominant species differ between the mucosa-associated and fecal microbiota. They also show that, in a given individual, the microbiota is relatively stable along the distal digestive tract, showing a slight evolution in dominant species diversity from the ileum to the rectum, in both healthy subjects and patients with IBD.”
Lepage P et al_Biodiversity of the mucosa-associated microbiota is stable along the distal digestive tract in healthy individuals and patients with IBD_Inflamm Bowel Dis_May 2005

"The feces contain mainly the luminal microbiota of the distal colon, while the mucosally associated microbiota is likely to have a more substantial physiological influence on the host. The mucosal microbiota can be expected to play a role in the modulation of the immune system, as it may stimulate IgA production and contribute to the degradation of antigenic proteins.”
Ouwehand AC et al_Microbiota Composition of the Intestinal Mucosa: Association with Fecal Microbiota?_Microbiol Immunol 2004

“Faecal bacterial community structures do not fully replicate mucosally associated profiles. Mucosally associated microbiota might affect epithelial and mucosal function to a greater degree than luminal bacteria.”
Sartor RB_Optimal sampling of the intestinal microbiota for research_Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol_May 2015

“The intestinal microbiota is an extremely complex community, the richness and diversity of which seems to be under-represented in fecal samples”
Durban A et al_Assessing gut microbial diversity from feces and rectal mucosa_Microb Ecol_Jan 2011

“Mucosal biopsy samples adequately represent bacterial populations within the technically difficult to access dissected gel layer so that standard mucosal sampling is sufficient to assess mucosal microbiota.”
Lavelle A et al_Spatial variation of the colonic microbiota in patients with ulcerative colitis and control volunteers_Gut_Jan 2015

“In Crohn’s disease, the mucosa-associated microbiota diversity is reduced at the time of surgery, but also differs between patients with different clinical outcomes at 6 months. These findings may provide prognostic information at the time of surgery, allowing identification of patients at increased risk of recurrence, and provide basis for a more targeted approach for therapeutic interventions after surgery.”
De Cruz P et al_Association between specific mucosa-associated microbiota in Crohn’s disease at the time of resection and subsequent disease recurrence: A pilot study_J Gastroenterol Hepatol_Feb 2015